[曾焯文:美國獨立宣言與今日香江 Chapman Chen: US Declaration of Independence and Contemporary HK — Local Press]

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John Trumbull名畫,描繪美國獨立宣言起草五人委員會

(English summary below)

美國獨立宣言及憲法乃係美國至重要的官方文件。獨立宣言主要由湯瑪士‧積佛臣 (Thomas Jefferson) 起草,一七七六年七月四日第二次大陸會議通過,當日定為獨立紀念日(七月二日已通過理察‧李Richard Henry Lee獨立動議)。獨立宣言列舉美國脫英獨立原因,亦即英國如何虧待北美殖民地民眾。究竟獨立宣言所述與香港現狀有何異同?以下各段將先引宣言金句(曾焯文中譯),然後配上香港相關情況。

 

本來只求自治

 

美國獨立戰爭初期,北美十三英屬殖民地,本來無意要求完全脫離英國殖民統治,只要求更多自治,然而,當時英政府及王室認定這些要求為叛亂,雙方先始爆發戰爭。「我等……多次…提醒英國…懇請乃念同宗同種,棄絕掠奪行為…然而,英方對公義及血緣呼聲充耳不聞。我等唯有宣告與之分離」。

 

香港人本來只要求一國兩制,好似英治時期生活方式不變,但九七後中國博命侵蝕香港自治自由:肆意人大釋法;以金融地產霸權將香港樓價屋租推致全球首位,令貧無立錐之地;以公安惡法,濫捕濫告,重判政治異見人士;以普教中消滅香港粵語文化;夾硬取消民選議員資格;全面滲透香港各界,包括教育界、新聞界、政界、商界、宗教界;以紅線論壓抑香港言論結社新聞自由;以大白象工程,掠奪香港儲備;以跨境計劃模糊廣東邊界;剝奪香港雙普選權利;如此方令不少香港青年產生與中國切割的念頭。

 

「英王拒絕批准對公眾極其有益而必須之法律…拒絕批准照顧大區公民之其他法例,除非區內公民肯放棄立法局代表權,而代表權對吾民無比珍貴,唯暴君畏之懼之。」

 

中國無限期押後香港人雙普選,除非香港人接受有篩選的選舉,而真普選對香港人好珍貴,只有獨裁中國方畏之懼之。

 

「英王…一再解散各邦眾議院

 

香港政府一六年DQ六位民選立法會議員,前後又一再因立法會參選人的政治立場而取消其資格。

 

「控制法官職位俸祿,迫使法官唯命是從。」

 

香港法官須宣誓效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區,終審法院所有法官須由行政長官任命,徵得立法會同意,並報全國人大常委會。

香港法官為保職位,博取升級,對異見示威人士,定罪率偏高,判刑極重,例如梁頌恆、遊蕙禎一六年身為議員,在立法會內,前往開會地點,竟然被控非法集結,而罪名成立,判監四個月。有如港獨派青年領袖梁天琦,因涉及一六年初二旺角警民衝突,而被控暴動,罪名成立,判監六年。不同案但同一事件被告人七十歲陳和祥,暴動罪名成立,被判三年零五個月徒刑。有些暴動案法官判案,涉嫌違反聯合國人權宣言無罪推定原則,譬如楊家倫案,法官特別留意到被告哨牙及眼神與相片犯案者相似,即當被告為相中人。

 

「派…官員…食我民脂民膏…掠奪我海域,蹂躪沿岸」

 

香港特首林鄭月娥明日大嶼計劃,要動用香港庫房一萬億港元,在交椅洲隔籬,起千七頃人工島,不少專家,例如前天文台長林超英,都認為有關人工島造價不合理,而且一遇颱風,岌岌可危。

 

「太平時期,未經我立法局同意,於各邦駐常備軍。」

 

根據基本法,中國有權在港駐軍,但除非香港特別行政區政府主動要求救災,否則解放軍不得著制服周圍行。然而,最近解放軍軍機降落香港赤鱲角機場,十月中駐港部隊又未經申請,出動清理颱風過後的塌樹及垃圾。

 

置吾人於憲法以外司法管轄範圍,不符我方法律」

 

本年七月十四號,中聯辦法律部長王振民:「凡是基本法沒有規定的問題,憲法的有關規定自動適用於香港。」此話違反中英聯合聲明及基本法規定的一國兩制。根據基本法第十八條,除了基本法附件三列明的全國法律,其他全國法律不會在香港實施。

 

「許多案件,剝奪吾民由陪審團陪審之權利

 

雨傘革命及魚蛋革命後,無陪審團的區域法院定罪率,遠高於有陪審團的高等法院,區域法院無陪審團多年來備受法律界評擊。

 

「以莫須有罪名,押吾民往海外受審

 

一五年,出版中共政治禁書的銅鑼灣書店老闆,李你、波桂民海等人,被中國官方人員跨境擄至中國幽禁。

 

「鄰省…專制政府,擴大疆域,於此處…引入…極權統治」「取消我憲章,廢除我…法律,根本改變…政府體制」

 

粵港澳大灣區消融香港邊界,要香港融入中國廣東省。西九高鐵一地兩檢,將中國法律引入香港九龍市中心,取代該處香港法律。

 

終止我立法職能,宣稱事無大小,均有權為我立法。」

 

人大屢次濫用基本法解釋權,例如一六年梁游宣誓案法庭未裁決,全國人大就主動釋法,規定議員宣誓無效後,不得重新宣誓,而且釋法還有追溯力,結果梁游兩位民選議員被法庭褫奪議員席位。又如零四年將政改程序,由三部曲改為五部曲,無限期押後香港雙普選。一七年習近平主席來港,監督香港特首宣誓就職,嚴重警告香港人,勿觸港獨紅線,壓抑香港言論自由。

 

殺我同胞

 

一四年雨傘革命及一六年魚蛋革命後,香港政治犯達百幾人。

 

「教唆無情印第安蠻夷,對付我居民

 

中共來港新殖民,有錢的就炒高樓價,無錢的就搶公屋,令本土基層無樓容身。這些新殖民似乎享有治外特權,在公眾場所大小便喧嘩而不遭檢控,甚至連中國遊客都可在法庭影相而毋須坐監交罸款。這些新殖民不尊重香港本土風俗價值觀。殺人犯施君龍二千年放火燒死入境處職員,一一年獲中國批准來港定居,曾公然鬧香港民主自由抗爭者係狗。又有些新殖民長期在旺角、尖沙咀,狂跳大媽舞,品味惡俗,騷擾公共安寧。港府為配合中國殖民香港,以及遷就新殖民,乃威迫利誘香港學校普教中,剝奪港人受母語教育人權。

The United States Declaration of Independence, the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights are the three most important US documents. The Declaration of Independence was mainly drafted by Thomas Jefferson, and then adopted by the Second Continental Congress on 4 July, 1776, which subsequently became the Independence Day of USA. The Declaration lists the reasons why USA decided to separate from Great Britain and create a new nation, i.e., the ways in which Great Britain maltreated its colonies in North America. This article examines whether there are similarities between how Britain treated the united states and how China is treating Hong Kong. In each of the paragraphs below, there will be first a quotation from the Declaration, to be matched with a relevant situation in Hong Kong.

Initially, Autonomy was All that was Asked for

Though the American Revolutionary War began in April 1775, the colonies did not initially demand complete separation from British rule; instead they sought more autonomy within the British Empire. However, British treatment of the American colonists as clear rebels over the opening months of the conflict leant weight to arguments for independence (cf. Stephen Conway 2018). “we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation… They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation”.

Originally, Hongkongers only asked for “one country, two systems” under the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and genuine autonomy under the Basic Law of HK, so that their life-style will remain the same as under British rule. However, since the handover from the UK to China in 1997, China has been vigorously eroding the autonomy and freedom of Hong Kong: It has willfully and repeatedly interpreted the Basic Law at the expense of Hongkongers’ rights; with the help of finance and real estates tycoons, it has pushed up Hong Kong property prices and rentals to the top level of the world, so that a huge number of Hongkongers cannot find a decent place to live; by means of the Pubic Order Ordinance, and via the HK puppet government, it has been immoderately arresting, prosecuting and heavily sentencing political dissidents; with the educational policy of encouraging and enticing HK schools to adopt Putonghua as a medium of instruction, it has been destroying Hong Kong Cantonese, which for 170 years has been one of the de facto official oral languages of HK (the other being English); it has disqualified democratically elected dissident lawmakers; it has comprehensively infiltrated all sectors of Hong Kong, including education, media, politics, business, religion, etc.; it has been suppressing press freedom, freedom of speech, and freedom of association in HK; it has been depleting the HK Treasury in the name of white elephant projects; it has been undermining the HK-China border by way of cross-border projects; it has deprived Hongkongers of the right to full democratic election or universal suffrage. It is only under such circumstances that many young Hongkongers have begun to support separation from China.
(to be continued)


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