梁頌恆前議助因立法會內「非法集會」入獄(曾焯文報導)Baggio Leung’s Former Assistant Jailed Today for “Illegal Assembly” INSIDE the Legco (Chapman Chen reports)

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今日(十月八日),張子龍將在放棄上訴後,因非法集會而被監禁。 張子龍乃係在立法會內被裁定非法集會罪名成立五位被告之一。 張當時是民選立會議員梁頌恆的助理。
張子龍根據公安條例被判刑,因未能獲得法律援助而放棄上訴。
有關判刑為何侵犯人權,倫敦人權組織香港監察Hong Kong Watch的講法如下:Today (8 October 2018), Cheung Tsz Lung, former lawmaker Baggio Leung Chung Hang’s assistant, will be imprisoned for illegal assembly after dropping his appeal for failing to receive legal aid. Cheung Tsz Lung was one of 5 defendants found guilty of committing illegal assembly inside the Legislative Council. He was the Baggio Leung’s assistant at the time. Hong Kong Watch’s statement on why this sentence breaches human rights can be found here:
香港監察觀點:梁頌恆游蕙禎定罪表明改革公安條例此其時也

(Eng. summary below)
倫敦人權組織Hong Kong Watch認為梁頌恆與游蕙禎非法集結罪成顯示:這條法例乃係用來鎮壓民主運動的主要工具,必須改革,使其符合國際人權標準。為防政治檢控,香港政府應該取消律政司決定刑事檢控的權力,並指定獨立首席檢察官。曾焯文舊年亦曾公開呼籲聯合國關注香港政府為消滅異見聲音,濫用公安條例中,過時殖民地惡法,包括非法集會、非法集結、暴動,涉嫌違反國際人權的言論集會自由。London-based NGO Hong Kong Watch states that legally elected lawmakers Sextus Leung and Yau Wai-ching’s conviction of illegal assembly inside the Legislative Council shows that it is high time the Public Order Ordinance be reformed to fit international human rights. And in order to prevent political prosecution, the HK Government should cancel the Secretary for Justice’s power to decide criminal prosecutions and appoint an independent chief prosecutor. Last year, Chapman Chen also publicly called upon the United Nation to look into the fact that in recent years, in arbitrarily arresting and prosecuting dissidents, the HK Government has abused outdated colonial clauses in HK Public Ordinance, like unauthorized assembly, unlawful assembly, and rioting, probably in contravention of the rights to freedom of speech, assembly and demonstration, as enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Recent sentences in such cases are also out of proportion.
民選立法會議員梁頌恆與游蕙禎及三名議員助理楊禮康、鍾雪瑩、張子龍,被控二零一六年十一月二日在立法會內非法集結,昨日(五月十一日)罪名成立。案發時,梁頌恆與游蕙禎相信自己有權入立法會會議廳重新宣誓,但遭禁止,於是企圖硬闖。
Hong Kong Watch認為雖然當時香港政府已申請取消梁游議員資格,但立法會紀律事宜仍可內部處理。
Hong Kong Watch指出聯合國屢次批評公安條例的含糊含義,強調「公安條例可用於限制過度享受公民權利及政治權利國際公約第二十一條所保障的權利」。

合法民選立法會議員及其職員竟可能因為在立法會「非法集結」而要坐監達三年之久,顯示此法例迫切需要改革。自從佔領示威以來,已有超過一百為民主派人士循此法例檢控。這條法例乃係用來鎮壓民主運動的重要工具,必須改革,使其符合國際人權標準。
另一個促成因素乃係,刑事罪行檢控與否由委任官員律政司司長決定。這導致近年來許多不必要的政治檢控。香港政府應該取消律政司決定刑事檢控的權力,並指定獨立首席檢察官。
消息來源:https://www.hongkongwatch.org/all-posts/2018/5/11/the-hong-kong-watch-view-the-conviction-of-baggio-and-yau-show-it-is-time-for-the-reform-of-the-public-order-ordinance 
 
按:曾焯文舊年曾公開呼籲聯合國人權事務委員會密切關注香港公安條例中惡法:
近來,香港政府,為消滅異見聲音,不斷利用香港公安條例中惡法,濫捕濫告,而暴動案往往嚴刑峻罰,令大量義人含冤入獄,均涉嫌違反國際人權公約。香港公安條例中過時殖民地惡法,包括非法集會、非法集結,違反國際人權的言論集會自由,應予廢除。公安條例暴動罪則過時,定義模糊,刑罸過重,不合國際人權公約的比例原則,應予廢除或釐清縮窄定義。晚近某些暴動案法官涉嫌違反無罪推定;判刑或有重刑觀念,並忽略抗暴人士的示威行動對社會之貢獻。敬請 協助含冤入獄人士。
示威集會本是人權
香港《公安條例》源於英治時期,六七土共暴動,導致無辜市民死傷枕藉,港府乃制訂《公安條例》,對付土共,如規定公眾集會要向警方申請牌照,否則犯非法集會罪。一九九五年立法局修訂公安條例,規定公眾集會只須事先通知警方。詎料九七後,港共政權恢復惡法,要集會人士事先申請警方不反對通知書,用以打壓爭取民主人權自由人士,惡法中非法集會(unauthorized assembly)、非法集結(unlawful assembly)罪名違反國際人權公約訂明的言論、集會、結社自由。
三人或以上在公共地方聚集,引人驚社會安寧受破壞,即屬非法集結罪,但破壞社會安寧非常含混,甚難定義。
公安條例暴動罪不合國際人權公約的比例原則
非法集結一旦與破壞社會安寧掛鉤,即屬暴動,最高刑罸判監十年!
比例原則
合乎比例(proportionality)概念為人權法不可或決部份,指限制民權的操施法令須與目的成合理比例,目的包括社會安全、公眾利益。合乎比例又指罪罰須相稱。
香港公安條例的暴動罪,名過其實,最高刑罰及近來實際判罰均遠超於案情。比較本地舊日暴動及英美暴動,無論歷時、死傷、損失,一六年新歲旺角所謂「暴動」,都小巫見大巫,根本只屬警民衝突。法學博士桑普指出,一六丙申旺角警民衝突源於「支持小販、反警抗暴」,在道德政治、歷史方面有功。台灣太陽花運動,志在反兩岸黑箱服貿協議,台北地院認為運動是公民抗命,判眾被告無罪。
無罪推定原則
最近幾單旺角暴動案的法官判案,涉嫌違反《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》無罪推定原則。比如楊家倫案,法官特別留意到被告哨牙,相片中犯案者亦露出哨牙,於是認為被告有罪。另一案被告薛達榮自辯謂見有人跑,基於安全遂「人跑佢又跑」,法官沈小民認為如不想惹人誤會是參與者,便應留在原地。然王岸然指出,心理學家或有常識者皆知,十個被狗追的人有十種不同反應,不會有所謂最正常做法。大好青年就因法官的有罪假定而入獄了。
濫捕濫告
《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》第九條:任何人不得無理予以逮捕或拘禁。然雨傘革命後,警方不斷濫捕濫告異見人士。
例一:立法會議員梁頌恆、游蕙禎曾以候任立法會議員身分,欲走入立法會會議廳依法宣誓,主席梁君彥違法下令保安阻他們入會議廳,現梁、游竟被控立法會內非法集結。例二:九名曾參與「佔領行動」人士被控以普通法的「公眾妨擾罪」,最高罰監禁七年。至於《簡易程序治罪條例》公眾地方妨擾罪,主要是輕微擾亂行為,如隨處大小便,最高罰款五百元及監禁三個月。例三:香港眾志、社民連成員被控舊年反釋法遊行中非法集結、煽惑他人擾亂秩序。律政司須證明各人當晚究竟有無及如何使用暴力或威脅使用暴力。
結論
聯合國人權事務委員會香港司法執法部門近年涉嫌踐踏國際人權、普世價值。建議公眾集會、示威遊行,只須照九五年的公安修訂條例,循例通知警方。暴動本為對付六七土共暴徒,亦應取消,況現已有襲警罪、傷人罪及公共地方行為不檢罪;或至少應釐清縮窄暴動及破壞社會安寧的定義。法庭判案須謹守無罪推定及毫無合理疑點方可定罪原則,刑罰當合乎比例,考慮抗暴人士的示威行動對社會之貢獻。警方必須停止濫捕濫告異見人士;香港特區政府不可以司法纏繞,鎮壓爭取民主自由的聲音。至於經已含冤入獄人士,應循上訴及國際支援等途徑,盡早獲釋。

Baggio Leung and Yau Wai-Ching and their three assistants have been found guilty today of illegal assembly inside the Legislative Council, despite the fact that Baggio and Yau were legally elected lawmakers. They attempted to barge into a meeting after they were barred from entering to re-take their oaths as lawmakers, believing that they were entitled to do this.
They were already set to be disqualified and the disciplinary matter could have been dealt with internally. However the Secretary of Justice chose to take the case to criminal court, charging them with ‘illegal assembly’ under the public order ordinance.
The United Nations have repeatedly criticised the public order ordinance for its vague definitions, highlighting that ‘the Public Order Ordinance could be applied to restrict unduly enjoyment of the rights guaranteed in article 21 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’.
The fact that legally elected lawmakers and their staff could spend up to three years in jail for ‘illegal assembly’ in the Legislative Council shows that this law is in urgently in need of reform. More than 100 pro-democracy figures have faced prosecution on the basis of this law since the Occupy protests. It is one of the primary tools used to silence the democracy movement and it must be reformed to bring it in line with international human rights standards.

Another contributing factor is the fact that the decision to prosecute criminal offences is the responsibility of the Secretary for Justice, an appointed official. This has led to unnecessarily political prosecutions in recent years. The government of Hong Kong should remove the responsibilities of the Secretary of Justice to decide criminal prosecutions and appoint an independent chief prosecutor.


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