曾焯文:港囚兒童政治犯?直追回藏古伊星?Chapman Chen: Teenage Political Prisoners in HK and other Authoritarian Countries

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(Eng. summary below)

香港十六歲兒童劉康今日在東區法院,管有仿製火器(玩具氣槍)罪成,即時還柙,九月判刑。舊年十一月林鄭特首到訪劉康所讀中學,拍大合照時,劉康用手機展示香港獨立標語。好多網民及劉康本人堅信今番定罪係政治迫害。劉康或為香港第二位兒童政治犯(第一位係一四年雨革期間,十四歲女童因塗鴉連儂牆,通宵扣查十七小時,警方申請保護令,裁判官裁定少女送入青少年院三周,後李柱銘向法院申請緊急保釋得直)。兒童政治犯往往在極權或半專制國家出現,例如中國轄下東突厥、圖博;古巴;伊朗;星加坡(新加坡)。外地兒童政治犯實例如下。Today, Lau Hong, a 16-year-old Hong Kong student-boy, was found guilty of possession of an imitation firearm (some sort of legal air-gun toy) near a protest last year over legislature rule changes. (Lau gave evidence in court that the gun was meant for self-defence against anti-independence protesters. But the judge disbelieved him, remarking, “If you’re really so worried about your safety, you should not have stayed at the scene for so many hours!”) Lau was remanded in custody pending multiple reports before sentencing, which will take place on 12 September. The maximum penalty is 2 years in jail. During the HK Chief Executive Carrie Lam’s visit to his school in November last year, Lau displayed a Hong Kong independence sign, which was shown in a picture taken of Carrie Lam and students of the school. Many netizens, including Lau himself, are convinced this time’s prosecution and conviction is political persecution. Lau may be the second teenage political prisoner in Hong Kong after 1997 (the first one being the 14-year-old girl who was arrested and detained for 72 hours for drawing graffiti with a chalk on the lennon wall in December 2014 during the Umbrella Revolution. She was sent to juvenile home for 20 days and was released on bail soon after.) Teenage political prisoners usually appear in authoritarian countries only, like Xinjiang and Tibet under China, Cuba, Iran, and Singapore.

For example, in April this year, at the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, former senator Frank Wolf pointed out that there were children’s concentration camps in Xinjiang. In 2011, Sangdrol-la, a Tibetan woman, gave evidence at the San Francisco International Amnesty Office that she was arrested in 1990 when she was thirteen for joining a protest in Lahsa against the China government, and imprisoned in a detention center for 9 months. In 1992, she was arrested again and sent to jail for 13 years because she would not renounce Dalai Lama. In prison, she was subjected to torture, including electric shock. When she arrived in America in 2002, her was in critical health.

In 1969, when the Cuban activist Oswaldo Paya (1952-2012) was 17, he was sent to a hard labor camp for refusing to transport political prisoners during his compulsory military service. Marina Nemat (1965- ), Iran activist and author of “Prisoner of Tehran: A Memoir”, testified that when she was 16, she was arrested for joining an anti-government protest, and repeatedly raped by a turnkey whom she was forced to marry. She stayed in jail for two years.

Amos Yee  (1998-  ), a Singaporean youtuber and blogger, uploaded a video on youtube strongly criticising Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore, shortly after his death in March 2015. Yee was subsequently arrested and charged with “intention of wounding the religious feelings of Christians”, obscenity, and “threatening, abusive or insulting communication.” He was sentenced to four weeks in jail.

今年四月美國共和黨前眾議員胡爾夫(Wolf)在美國宗教自由委員會峰會上痛斥中國大舉拘捕成百萬維吾爾人,甚至辦兒童集中營。

二零一一年,西藏女子山多拉Sangdrol-la在三藩市國際特赦辦公室作證: 九零年十三歲時,因參加拉蕯反政府示威被捕,囚九月,因不肯背棄達賴喇嘛而飽受酷刑,甚至電擊。兩年後,再次被捕,判刑十三年。二零零二年獲釋赴美,健康危殆。

已故古巴異見領䄂奧斯華多·巴耶 (Oswaldo Payá) (一九五二至二零一二),一九六九年時十七歲,服兵役,拒運政治犯,被判三年苦工監。

伊朗作家兼抗爭者瑪蓮娜·尼默 (Marina Nemat),著有德黑蘭囚徒一書,謂一九八一年,其十六歲時,因參加反政府示威而被捕,被迫嫁予獄卒,在囚室內不斷被那人強姦,坐足兩年。

余澎杉,新加坡網誌作者、YouTube影片製作者及演員,一五年十六歲時,在Youtube批評剛逝世的李光耀為「獨裁者」及指「耶穌欺騙世人」,新加坡警方以「傷害他人宗教或種族情感」、「發放猥褻物品」及社會「滋擾」等罪名拘捕余澎杉,拘禁在精神病院中,手腳被綁,禁止睇書,廿四小時開燈,後新加坡法庭判監四周。一六年八月,余澎杉十七歲被控「不服從警方命令」及六項「冒犯基督徒及穆斯林宗教情感」,判入獄六個星期。同年十二月,余澎杉執旅遊簽證進入美國芝加哥國際機場,向美國當局申請政治庇護。 一七年九月余澎杉政治庇護申請正式獲准。

注:

舊年十二月十二日,立法會辯論修改議事規則,外面有民主派人士示威,劉康在附近被警截查,發現其斜袋藏有枝氣槍及BB彈,劉康上證人臺時,解釋枝氣槍用以自衛。女法官香淑嫻今日宣判裁決時表示不信。劉康作證時聲稱在電視及親眼見過藍絲打港獨示威者,而劉康自己支持港獨,當日欲去立會影相,為怕被毆,故帶氣槍自保。官斥道:怕得咁交關,為何尚要往危地,並打算留到集會結束?官話劉聲稱擔心受襲,但同時過往從未受脅,根本並非自衛,其實想增加集會人數,並用氣槍犯罪,做攻擊武器射人。

Photo credit: Lau Hong’s facebook.


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