美國國會最新香港人權報告 Hong Kong Human Rights Report by US Congress 曾焯文編譯 (Trans. Chapman Chen)

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美國國會最新香港人權報告 Hong Kong Human Rights Report by US Congress
曾焯文編譯 (Trans. Chapman Chen) (Eng. summary below)

美國國會本年四月二十發表二零一七年度各國人權報告,其中中國人權報告包括香港特區部份。香港人權報告,話中國中央政府蠶食香港特區自治權,而政府一連串行動,對政治抗議及言論自由有寒蟬效應,尤其是檢控抗議人士、用訴訟取消議員資格、以及北京及特區政府的嚴厲聲明。以下根據上述報告,簡述香港各方面人權狀況,包括香港自治、酷刑、國家機器、言論自由、新聞自由、學術文化自由、和平集會自由方面、外遊、參政、工人權利等。(https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2017/eap/277077.htm)On 20 April, US Congress published 2017 Human Rights Report. The section on Hong Kong under China states that ”The most significant human rights issues included: the central PRC government’s encroachment on the SAR’s autonomy, and government actions that had a chilling effect on political protest and the exercise of free speech (e.g., prosecutions against protesters, lawsuits to disqualify opposition lawmakers, and statements by central and SAR government officials)”. In respect of freedom of expression, Mathew Cheung, the SAR’s chief secretary for administration stated “there is no room for discussion” of Hong Kong independence. And directly elected lawmakers, Sixtus Leung and Yau Wai-ching, were disqualified based on their pro-independence gestures during oath-taking. Also, Beijing has required the HKSAR Government to criminalize any behaviour ridiculing the National Anthem. Concerning autonomy, in November 2016, NPCSC issued an unsolicited interpretation of the Basic Law, requiring official oath-taking to be solemn and sincere, before the Hong Kong court could reach a decision as to whether Leung and Yau should be disqualified. Concerning State apparatus, multiple sources reported that Mainland operatives monitored activists, NGOs, and academics critical of Beijing. Regarding freedom of assembly, Nathan Law, Alex Chow and Joshua Wong were sentenced to jail by the Appeal Court, after serving community service orders made by a Magistrate for climbing into a closed SAR government complex at the start of the 2014 Occupy protests.

言論自由方面,舊年九月北京政府通過國歌法,將任何嘲弄國歌行為刑事化,要求參加公共活動人士,一聽見國歌,即時肅立,正經歌唱,並規定香港政府本地立法。
舊年九月,幾間大學有學生在校園掛港獨標語,政務司張建宗話港獨無討論空間。同月,立法會議員何君彥公開呼籲對港獨派「殺無赦」。一六年十一月人大釋法,禁止宣誓時加料或不夠真誠莊重的民選議員就任。結果,特區政府利用此次人大釋法DQ六位反對派立會議員。
香港自治方面,一七年一月,富商肖建華,在香港酒店,被疑為中共國安局人員押返大陸,全不尊重一國兩制。又九七以來,人大五次釋法,最近一次,特區法院根本無提出要求。
參政方面,立法會保留非直選功能組別,立法會議員無提案權。舊年八月,終審庭維持一六年裁決,取消反對派民選議員梁頌恆、游蕙禎資格,事關他們宣誓時作出親港獨姿勢。一六年十一月,正如前述,人大在香港法院獨立解釋基本法,裁決梁游案之前,主動釋法,一錘定音。
酷刑方面,無線新聞片顯示二零一四年雨傘革命期間,抗爭人士曾健忠被七名便衣警察暗角打鑊。黃之鋒公開聲稱囚犯答問題時被迫赤身蹲低。
國家機器方面,多方消息來源報告在港中國特工監視民運人士、政治抗爭者、律師、慈善團體,及批評中共的學者。舊年習近平訪港期間,有抗爭者話被親中組織毆打。
新聞自由方面,傳媒自我審查的各種報告繼續出現。
學術文化自由方面,一六年香港天安門博物館據稱受大廈業主委員會壓力而關閉。香港國際NGO紛紛表示擔心親中傳媒持續批評其活動,定性為外國勢力干預。
和平集會自由方面,一六年黃之鋒、周永康、羅冠聰雨傘運動九二八佔領公民廣場,非法集會罪名成立,被判社會服務令及緩刊,舊年八月,上訴庭推翻裁判署判刊,判黃等三人入獄六至八個月。十至十一月,黃等獲保釋上訴。
外遊方面,北市政府曾不批準某些異見人士及議員到中國旅行。
工人權利方面,香港法例規定香港工人有組成及參加工會權,罷工權,但無集體談判權。


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